Mediterranean Diet and Your Genes

Have you ever wondered how a person’s genes make a difference in the individual body’s response to dietary choices? Some people are excellent at breaking down dietary carbohydrates; others are champs at converting carrots into vitamin A.

But a recent study pointed out not only an interaction between genes and diet – but an interesting way of how genetics may influence the type of diet we choose.

Do your genes influence your dietary choices?

The study looked at interactions between a genetic variant in the angiotensin II gene and dietary choices in Croatia.[ref] The country of Croatia lies along the Mediterranean Sea on the southern coast of Europe. Some of the population eats a Mediterranean-style diet, while others eat a Continental or more traditional European-style diet. It makes for a unique opportunity to study the health effects of the Mediterranean-style diet.

First, let’s look at how the researchers define each diet type. From the study: “The Mediterranean-type of diet included a proportionally high daily consumption of olive oil, fruits, and vegetables, consumption of fish two to three times a week, consumption of white meat instead of red meat, and consumption of nuts at least three times a week.”

“The Continental diet included high consumption of red meat and meat products, small quantities of fruits and vegetables, and rare consumption of fish without olive oil. The diet that included the elements of Mediterranean-type and Continental-type of diet was categorized as a mixed-type of diet.”

The study participants (n=528) were split pretty evenly, with half having metabolic syndrome and a half without metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a catch-all term that means the participants had at least three conditions: high blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist, high triglycerides, and abnormal cholesterol levels.

In other studies, the Mediterranean-style diet reduced the risk of metabolic syndrome and reduced high triglycerides.

Researchers looked at the interaction with the angiotensin II gene involved in both lipogenesis (creation of triglycerides) and the creation of fat cells (adipogenesis). Additionally, variants of this gene are associated with high blood pressure. The variant they sequenced for this study was rs5186.

In this Croatian population, those carrying the risk allele were at a higher risk for high triglycerides. But the researchers also found those carrying the risk allele were about twice as likely to have chosen to normally eat a Mediterranean-style diet.

So you have a two-way interaction: a risk allele that usually causes higher triglyceride levels and a natural tendency to go with a diet that will lower triglycerides. Balanced. Amazing how you can instinctively know what diet works best for you.


Mediterranean diet: Genotype Report

Members: Log in to see your data below.
Not a member? Join here. Membership lets you see your data right in each article and also gives you access to the member’s only information in the Lifehacks sections.

AGTR1 gene:

Check your genetic data for rs5186 (23andMe v4, v5; AncestryDNA):

  • A/A: typical
  • A/C: increased risk of hypertension and high triglycerides, more likely to choose the Mediterranean diet[ref]
  • C/C: increased risk of hypertension and high triglycerides, more likely to choose the Mediterranean diet

Members: Your genotype for rs5186 is .


Lifehacks:

The rest of this article is for Genetic Lifehacks members only. Consider joining today to see the rest of this article.

Member Content:

An active subscription is required to access this content.

Join Here for full access to this article, genotype reports, and much more!


Already a member? Log in below.


Related Articles and Genes:

Do you carry the Hunter-Gatherer or the Farmer Genetic Variant?
Our ancient ancestors lived much differently than we do today. They were hunter-gatherers, living off of fish, meat, and plant foods that they gathered. A huge shift took place when those hunter-gatherers began farming, growing grains, and storing them so that there would be food available all year.

Ancestral Diet: Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids
Olive oil, grapeseed oil, avocado oil, — cold expeller pressed, extra virgin hand-squeezed oil from pine nuts grown in a pristine Siberian forest? Am I the only one who is confused about which kind of fat is the best? It turns out, like most things, that the answer to the ‘best type of fat’ question depends on your genes.

Vitamin B6 Deficiency
Vitamin B6 is an important co-factor in hundreds of different enzymatic reactions. Low levels of B6 are linked to an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. B6 is also essential for reducing oxidative stress and inflammation.

Does eating meat put you at a higher risk for colon cancer?
Depending on their processed meat intake, people who carry certain genetic variants are at an increased risk for colon cancer. You can check your genetic data to see if processed meat will likely increase colon cancer risk.

 

References:

Andrews, Julie. “Mediterranean Grain Bowls with Salmon.” The Healthy Epicurean, 8 May 2016, https://thehealthyepicurean.com/mediterranean-grain-bowls-with-salmon/.

Božina, T., et al. “Can the Choice of Diet Undermine the Potential Genetic Risk of AT1R 1166A>C Gene Polymorphism?” Gene, vol. 679, Dec. 2018, pp. 291–96. PubMed, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2018.09.004.

Wang, W. Y., et al. “Association of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Gene Polymorphism with Essential Hypertension.” Clinical Genetics, vol. 51, no. 1, Jan. 1997, pp. 31–34. PubMed, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-0004.1997.tb02410.x.


About the Author:
Debbie Moon is the founder of Genetic Lifehacks. Fascinated by the connections between genes, diet, and health, her goal is to help you understand how to apply genetics to your diet and lifestyle decisions. Debbie has a BS in engineering and also an MSc in biological sciences from Clemson University. Debbie combines an engineering mindset with a biological systems approach to help you understand how genetic differences impact your optimal health.