conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine or serotonin

Tryptophan Pathways: Kynurenine, Serotonin, and Melatonin

Tryptophan is an amino acid that the body uses to make serotonin and melatonin. Genetic variants can impact the amount of tryptophan that is used for serotonin. This can influence mood, sleep, neurotransmitters, and immune response.

HPA Axis Dysfunction: Cortisol and Stress

Cortisol is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands in times of stress, and it also plays many roles in your normal bodily functions. It is a multi-purpose hormone that needs to be in the right amount (not too high, not too low) and at the right time. Your genes play a big role in how likely you are to have problems with cortisol.

ANK3: Bipolar Disorder and Brain Development

The genetic variants in the ANK3 gene impact the risk of psychiatric disorders that include bipolar disorder and autism spectrum disorders, and heart arrhythmia. Discover how ANK3 impacts neuronal formation and transmission and how this ties into an increased risk of psychiatric disorders.

Psychopath Genes: Born not made?

Can you be born a psychopath? Are there genes linked to psychopathy? Discover how your genes don’t predestine you to become a psychopath.

Depression genes

Depression, genetics, and mitochondrial function

How does mitochondrial dysfunction relate to major depressive disorder? Learn about the causes of mitochondrial dysfunction as well as genetic variants that link the risk of depression to the mitochondria.

COMT: Interactions with Supplements

Some supplements interact with COMT variants to impact the rate at which neurotransmitters are broken down. Check your COMT genotype and discover how this may affect your reaction to different supplements or combinations of supplements.

Anxiety: Genetic connections and personalized solutions

This article covers genetic variants related to anxiety disorders. Genetic variants combine with environmental factors (nutrition, sleep, relationships, etc) when it comes to anxiety. There is not a single “anxiety gene”. Instead, there are many genes that can be involved – and many genetic pathways to target for solutions.

CBD Oil: Genes and Receptors

Why do some people get such great benefits from CBD while others notice nothing? Your genes play a role in how your body responds to CBD.

Lithium Orotate, Vitamin B12, and Mood

For some people, low-dose, supplemental lithium orotate is a game changer when combined with vitamin B12. But other people may have little to no response. The difference may be in your genes.

Depression, Genetics, and Circadian Rhythm

For some people, circadian disruption can be chronic – and at the heart of depression or mood disorders. Genetic variants play a role in this susceptibility. Fortunately, there are solutions that may help. ​

Brain & Mood Summary Report

Utilize our Brain & Mood Topic Summary Reports with your 23andMe or AncestryDNA genetic data to discover the articles most relevant to you. These summaries distill the complex information down into just a few words. Please refer to the linked articles for details and complete references. (Member’s article)

MTHFR and Depression

We are all genetically unique, and a common genetic variant in the MTHFR gene causes some people to be more susceptible to having low folate levels. This article explains the research linking MTHFR variants, folate, and depression — and gives you information on how diet or supplements may help.

Genetics of Seasonal Affective Disorder

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is characterized by recurrent depression with a change in the season usually in fall/winter for most. Scientists think this is possibly due to an aberrant response to light – either not enough brightness to the sunlight or not enough hours of light. Your genes play a big role in this responsiveness to light.

Dopamine Fasting: Addicted to the internet?

Genetics plays a role in susceptibility to addictive behavior, including internet and smartphone addiction. This article examines the latest fad of dopamine fasting along with genetic variants tied to internet use problems, smartphone usage disorder, and gaming disorders.

Choline – An Essential Nutrient

An essential nutrient, your need for choline from foods is greatly influenced by your genes. Find out whether you should be adding more choline into your diet.

COMT – A gene that affects your neurotransmitter levels

Wondering why your neurotransmitters are out of balance? It could be due to your COMT genetic variants. The COMT gene codes for the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase which breaks down (metabolizes) the neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.